What are COX2 (COX-2) Inhibitors and How do
To understand COX-2 (COX2) Inhibitors, you first have to
understand COX-1 (COX1) and what its role in the body is.
Regular NSAIDS (generally COX-1 and COX-2 Inhibitors) work
by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins (PGs). Prostaglandins
are fatty-acid derivatives located all over your body that
are well known for their inflammation and immune response
effects. However, they also have many different roles in
the body. A scientific list would read as such: PG's are
involved in as diverse normal processes as ovulation, blood
clotting, renal function, wound healing, vasomotor tone,
platelet aggregation, differentiation of immune cells, nerve
growth, bone metabolism, and initiation of labor. Pretty
essential to your body, wouldn't you say?
If you are familiar with the fact that
when you are using drugs such as aspirin, your blood thins
and you bruise easier, that is a "side effect" of the COX-1
inhibitor. In the above list, that would fall under the
blood clotting category. Remember, COX-1 inhibitors work
by inhibiting PG's. Due to the acidity of the stomach,
the cells of your stomach are replaced very quickly, within
a few days. One of the major roles of PG's is to keep the
lining of the stomach intact, and when your PG system is
disrupted (say by taking COX-1 drugs like many NSAIDS)
stomach irritation, digestive tract problems and even intestinal
or stomach bleeding and ultimately death could occur.
COX-2 inhibitors were discovered later,
and were presumed to be a "healthier, more targeted" way
of treating the soreness--without the side effects. This
makes sense as COX-2 is found more commonly in inflammatory
and immune cells than COX-1 drugs, which exist throughout
the body. Unfortunately, this would prove to be far, far
from the truth. While COX-2 is more specific to soreness,
the side effects can be far worse than COX-1 drugs.
The side effects of COX-1 drugs are
pretty terrible. It is estimated that 25% experience some
kind of side effect and 5% develop SERIOUS health consequences
such as GI (stomach) bleeding, acute renal failure, or
worse. The New England Journal of Medicine reports that "anti-inflammatory drugs
(prescription and over-the-counter, which include Advil,
Motrin, Aleve, Ordus, Aspirin, and over 20 others) alone
cause over 16,500 deaths and over 103,000 hospitalizations
per year in the US", according to a review article published
in the New England Journal of Medicine1.
You can see why researchers would believe
there was a clear cut and dry line between COX-1 and COX-2.
The message was clear: research (and get patents for) drugs
that actually inhibited only COX-2 and you would have a
blockbuster drug on your hands. Unfortunately, like many
things, it was not nearly as cut and dry as this. Over
the counter drugs such as Ibuprofen and Naproxen work to
inhibit COX-1 and COX-2. Aspirin works more on COX-1. Some
others such as diclofenac work primarily on COX-2 but also
affect COX-1. However, even â€œselectiveâ€ COX-2
inhibitors aren't that selective. At therapeutic dosages,
they inhibit enough COX-1 to potentially cause the same stomach
toxicity and other associated problems as regular COX-1 drugs.
Not to the exact same extent but more than enough to do damage.
Remember, 16,500 people are KILLED by "harmless" and "common" NSAIDS
such as aspirin or ibuprofen every year. In development are
other "newer aspirins" that may prove to ACTUALLY be more
selective for COX-2 than COX-1, but in the mean time -despite
claims of being "selective" -the current COX-2's such as
Vioxx (rofecoxib) or Celebrex (celecoxib) are simply not
selective enough, not to mention some of their potentially
horrible side effects and the associated lawsuits that have
been filed due to side effects such as heart attacks, stroke
and blood clots2. Our advice is to explore (for osteoarthritis)
other alternative, cheaper and far more effective treatments
for your pain. Glucosamine is a natural (and as such not
patentable by large drug companies) substance that has been
shown in some studies to be at least as effective as Ibuprofen
and other related drugs. Plus, it works to improve flexibility.
Not even a pure "second generation" COX-2 drug will be able
to do that.
Flexicose contains absolutely no COX-2 drugs, only superior-quality
Liquid Glucosamine and 12 other synergistic ingredients,
designed to knockout your joint discomfort while improving
flexibility from within. Stop simply covering up your discomfort
while things get worse and worse. Flexicose has little to
no side effects and is far less expensive - under 90 cents
a day! Give Flexicose a try now, you have 30 days risk free
and you will get quick and free U.S. shipping. Order Flexicose
now. Or simply get more information on the benefits of Flexicose.
1. Wolfe MM, et. al. NEJM 1999;340(24):1888-99